COP-25 |Conference of parties-25

In the same month, the 25th session of the Conference of Parties (COP), the apex body of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change- UNFCCC, was held in Spain’s capital Madrid. Earlier COP-25 was to be held in the Chilean capital of Santiago, but due to growing protests in the country, Chile expressed its inability to hold it, after which Madrid was elected.

What are UNFCCC and COP?


  • The UNFCCC is one of three proposed agreements on environment at the Rio Earth Summit held in Brazil in 1992:
    • United Nations Biodiversity Convention (UNCBD)
    • United Nations Desertification Prevention Conference (UNCCD)
    • United Nations Climate Change Framework Conference (UNFCCC)
  • It was implemented on 21 March 1994 after the signing of the agreement by various countries. Significantly, today this treaty is valid by 197 countries.
  • Since 1995, the annual meetings of the UNFCCC have been organized continuously and it is the largest forum in the world to be held annually on the issue of environment and climate.
    • It was in this year that the famous Kyoto Protocol was signed in 1997 and the target was set by the developed countries (countries included in Annex-1) to control greenhouse gases. Under the Kyoto Protocol, 40 industrialized countries have been placed on separate list Annex-1.
  • The meeting of the countries officially participating in this conference is known as the Conference of Parties (COP). It may be noted that the first meeting of the COP was held in Berlin, Germany on March 1995.

The purpose of COP-25

paris agreement

  • The primary objective of COP-25 was to discuss the unresolved issues of the 2015 Rule of Book Agreement. Significantly, in the year 2020, the Paris Agreement will replace the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.
  • There was no consensus on some issues like the creation of new carbon markets, emission reduction targets, different goals of different countries in the COP-24 held in December last year, due to which the Paris Agreement Manual was also finalized. Could not be given.
  • Issues such as the working of the international emission trading system and the system of compensation for the underdeveloped countries to deal with the consequences of climate change were also to be discussed in the meeting.
  • Also, the annual emission gap report issued by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) in COP-25 and various reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were to be discussed.
  • The said reports said that the Paris Agreement’s goal of limiting global temperatures to 1.5 degrees Celsius is now ‘on the verge of being impossible’, as carbon emissions are still rising globally.

Why is COP-25 important?

climate change

  • Several scientific studies have revealed that the global community will have to reduce global carbon emissions by half by 2030 to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement to limit global temperatures to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
  • Experts believe that for this work we have to bring many big and transformational changes, but we have less than 11 years left for this work.
  • According to the recently released Emission Gap Report 2019, currently even if all the targets set under the Paris Agreement are followed, by 2030 the global temperature will increase by 3.2 degree Celsius with widespread and fatal consequences on the climate.
  • Increasing climate activism at the global level makes it clear that people around the world are demanding strict action in this context from their governments.
  • In view of this, experts believe that COP25 can actually make a meaningful and useful contribution in increasing global climate action.

COP-25 results

  • A document entitled Chile Madrid Time of Action has been released at the meeting. Under this document, the scientific suggestions given by the IPCC to the nations to tackle the obstacles arising from climate change in sustainable development and poverty alleviation have been appreciated.
    • In addition, it emphasized the imperative of commitments by nations to reduce greenhouse gases emissions by 2020 and highlight the gap in current emission levels.
    • Also, the commitment to raise $ 100 billion by 2020 to help developing countries in the context of climate change was also reiterated.
    • The document highlighted the need to unilaterally eradicate the challenges of biodiversity degradation and climate change.
  • During the meeting, 177 private sector companies took an oath to cut emissions in line with the target of 1.5C.
  • Meanwhile, the European Union has also unveiled the ‘European Green Deal’, under which the European Union countries have set themselves the goal of reducing their carbon emissions to Climate Neutral by 2050.
  • Apart from this, disagreements were filed by developing countries on the arrangement of ‘Financing Window’ under the Green Climate Fund (GCF).
  • The Least Developing Countries reiterated their commitment to the Pre-2020 targets but also demanded not to expect more from them.
  • In addition to Article 6, the member states agreed on all points in the Paris Agreement manual.

How successful was COP-25?

  • Due to the lack of consensus on the rules for the new carbon market mentioned in Article 6 of the Paris Agreement at the meeting, it was transferred to COP-26 to be held next year.
  • It is known that Article 6 of the Paris Agreement offers the concept of an international carbon market. The carbon market allows various countries and industries to earn carbon credits for emissions reduction. These carbon credits can be sold to any other country. The buyer of carbon credits can show these credits as their carbon emission targets.
  • Some countries (eg-Mexico) have sought permission to use the credit points of the Kyoto Agreement in the Paris Agreement, which all countries could not agree to.
  • Under Article-6, the requirement of ‘Common Timeframe’ was also postponed till next year.
  • Another problem is that under the new process these credits can be bought and sold multiple times between countries or private companies in the market. Therefore, in this process it will be necessary to ensure that these credits are not counted more than once.

Significance of COP

In recent times, there have been many questions on the significance of COP and not all countries have agreed on any concrete decision in these conferences. Most countries manipulate the rules in their own way.

  • Many important issues could not be agreed in this conference, after which some issues were postponed for the next year.
  • At the end of the second commitment (2013-20) of the Kyoto Protocol, the Paris Agreement will be formally implemented in 2020, but many of its rules have still not been agreed. It may be noted that in the year 2012, Canada withdrew itself from the Kyoto Protocol.
  • The Doha meeting of the COP (COP-18) in 2012 saw Canada, Japan, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, New Zealand and the US refusing to join the second commitment of the Kyoto Protocol.
  • Separating a country like America from the Paris Agreement is a major setback for this campaign.
  • The EU and Japan succeeded in achieving their goals according to the standards of developed countries but lagged behind in discharging the historical responsibility of contributing to climate change.
  • India expressed disappointment over not completing its $ 100 billion cooperation by developing countries.

The conclusion

In such a situation, it is clear that most of the powerful countries want to protect themselves from big responsibilities in some way and even today most countries are not unanimous on various important subjects. Addressing the meeting, the UN Secretary General also said that “I am very disappointed with the result of COP-25.” The international community has lost an important opportunity to show an ambition to fight climate change, change itself accordingly and invest on this objective, but we should not give up hope and I will not give up hope. ” On the issue, all nations should come together on a platform and express their commitment to their responsibilities so that carbon emissions Achieve Srgn goals we can improve your future.

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