A deadline of 31 October 2019 was set for the agreement between the Government of India and various Naga National Political Groups (NNPGs). But despite this, various stakeholders have not been able to execute any agreement. However negotiations are on for the agreement and the National Socialist Council of Nagalim (NSCN-IM), a leading organization in Naga groups, is still involved in the agreement. The Central Government has clarified that before finalizing the agreement, the neighboring states of Nagaland will also be discussed with Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Manipur to address the concerns of the respective states.
History of Naga | Naga problem |Naga Issue
The Naga is an ethnic group, divided into various tribes. The Naga has been famous for its separate identity and its preservation even before the British era. In 1929, before the Simon Commission, the first Nagas gave preliminary evidence of the beginning of resistance, seeking to determine their own future. The Nagas are spread across the region to the northeast of India and Myanmar. Burma, then called Myanmar, was separated from India by the Government of India Act of 1935. The demarcation of the political boundary divided the Nagas into India and Myanmar. On August 14, 1947, the day before Indian Independence Day, various Naga groups declared themselves independent. The leading role in this was considered the Naga National Council. These groups formed the underground government and army. The then Government of India considered it unfair for Indian unity and integrity and appropriate action was taken. In the year 1958, the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) was enacted in the disturbed areas of the Northeast. For the past several decades, efforts for violence and peace agreement have been going on simultaneously in this region, but so far it has not been possible to reach any concrete result.
Demands for Naga groups
NNPGs have been demanding a greater Nagaland, namely Nagalim, including the Naga regions spread across the Northeast, including some areas of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur and Myanmar. For this, they cite historical factors and separate culture. Under this, they demand that Nagalim be given special status. At the same time Naga groups have been demanding Yehzabo i.e. a separate constitution for the administration of Nagalim and a separate flag for the representation of their region.
Identity crisis is interpreted as a concept in which an individual or group suffers from a sense of insecurity over the identity of their culture, civilization over the long term. In India and the world, communities and societies which have not adopted modern ideas and are still living on the basis of their archaic beliefs, are often experiencing a sense of identity crisis as a result of the changes that are coming. In India, this problem can be seen mainly in the northeastern states. There are various ethnic elements in the Northeast, there are cultural differences among these ethnic groups. Various ethnic groups have come close despite not wanting due to modern physical factors, this has created their identity crisis. As a result, various ethnic groups, including Nagas, are constantly fighting with the government to establish their own identity.
Naga insurgency and NSCN
In 1975, the Naga National Council signed the Shillong Agreement with the government. Under this agreement, the NNC accepted the Indian Constitution. But angered by the NNC’s decision, Issac, Muivah and Khaplang together formed the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN). The NSCN split into two factions, the Issac, Muivah faction (NSCN-IM) and the Khaplang faction (NSCN-K), due to differences between Isak, Muivah and Khaplang. NSCN-IM established itself as a major Naga organization in the year 1991 after the death of the NNC chief Phiso. In 1997, NSCN-IM started the process of negotiation with the Central Government by announcing a ceasefire. In the year 2015, the framework of the agreement was fixed. Negotiations are currently underway on this agreement on which a final decision has not been taken yet.
NNPGs are demanding a separate Nagalim. If a Nagalim is built, then the borders of Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam, the neighboring states of Nagaland, will also need to be changed. Thus, to overcome a problem, similar problems may arise in other states. Not only this, there is a demand for separate constitution and separate flag for the Nagas. It is worth noting that similar facilities were given to Jammu and Kashmir after Independence, but it could not bring any benefit in the respective area nor did the extremism reduce. Keeping these facts in mind, the Central Government recently abolished the status of special state of Jammu and Kashmir. If the Center makes such arrangements for the Nagas, then it will put a question mark on the policy of the Central Government. The demand for separate flags will also give rise to a similar problem, it is noteworthy that the Karnataka government had demanded state flags sometime back but the Center has rejected this demand. The flag represents the identity of a country, on the basis of which the idea of one country one flag is valid.
The agreement is currently under negotiation, but it can be inferred from the statements of the government that the government is not in favor of fully accepting the demands of NNPGs. Efforts are being made to find a middle ground for the agreement. Various subsidies given to Nagaland in place of Nagalim will also be extended to the Nagas residing in other related states, with the Nagas being allowed to use their own flag on cultural forums and programs, but this exemption will be allowed in political matters. Will not happen. The Nagas will be given autonomy in place of a separate constitution and special interests will be protected. Also, the government may consider accepting other demands whose impact is not widespread.
Naga common man status
The Naga region has been battling Naga insurgency since independence and retaliatory action taken by the government to prevent insurgency. This has not only hindered the development of the region, but the people of this region have also been affected by the violence. If Naga demand is said to be a tool for selfishness of some organizations, it will not be an exaggeration. Various militant organizations have been implementing the parallel tax system in the Naga region for many decades. This situation has encouraged the trend of extortion, resulting in an increase in regional enterprises, economic exploitation of affluent people. At present, the Naga people are in the hope of peace in the region and want to leave violent conflict and move forward. The Naga youth agrees that India and the world is developing at a rapid pace and if the Nagas want to join this development race, then education will have to be emphasized, peace is most needed for this, so whether it is the peace agreement Should come from or without it, but its result should come in the form of development and modernity of this region.
The British government left India divided into 652 princely states. By combining these princely states, India threaded them into one formula and created the present India. But in some areas the problems had been there since before independence, these problems could not be resolved even after independence. The Naga problem is also a similar problem, but at present it has become important to find a solution to this problem. Now the Government of India and Naga have come together to negotiate on one platform and the possibilities are being expressed that the conflict can be ended for more than a century and this region can also move forward on the path of development. But for this it is necessary that the government should be proactive in this dialogue and do not include such provisions in the agreement, which cannot be interpreted objectively. It has been a problem with the agreements made in the past that their provisions were being interpreted by the government and other interest groups according to their own interests, thereby failing the agreements of the past.
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