Prelims Facts: 07 February 2020 – Drishti IAS

Prelims Facts: February 07, 2020



Anguilla is an island in the Caribbean Sea that has made financial gains through two innovative technologies (Artificial Intelligence and Vanity URL).

main point:

  • 'AI' is the 'country code' of Anguilla and is also an abbreviation for Artificial Intelligence.
  • Financial benefits to Artificial Intelligence and Anguilla: When an internet address that ends with an '.ai' is registered or renewed by an artificial intelligence startup or a large company or an investor, the island charges 50 dollars annually to those startups, companies or investors Which is mostly deposited in the government treasury of Anguilla.
    • The Uniform Resource Locator- URL is a unique web address that is used to serve marketing purposes. A vanity URL is a type of custom URL that helps users remember and search for a specific page in a website.

About Anguilla

  • It is a British seaside island located in the eastern Caribbean Sea, ie Britain is the authority on it.
    • The Caribbean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean that is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico.
  • It is formed from coral and limestone and has a tropical climate.
  • Other Islands: There are several small uninhabited offshore islands in the region, some of which are the larger islands Dog, Scrub and Sombrero and Prickly Pear Cays.
  • Population: Most of Anguilla's population is of African descent, with the majority believing in Christianity.
  • Economy: The economy is based on tourism and financial services, while agriculture is of little importance.

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve

Recently, a rejuvenation camp for captive elephants was launched at Mudumalai Tiger Reserve in the state of Tamil Nadu.


About Mudumalai Tiger Reserve

  • Location: Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is located at the tri-junction of three states (Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu) in the Nilgiri district of the state of Tamil Nadu.
  • Its area is 321 sq km. is. It is part of India's first Biosphere Reserve (Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve) announced in the year 1986.
  • Range extension: Its border to the west Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary (Kerala), in the north Bandipur Tiger Reserve (Karnataka) and the Nilgiri North Division in the south-east and Gudalur Forest Division in the south-west, creating a large conservation landscape for major species such as tigers and Asian elephants.
  • The Moyar River flows through the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve and forms the natural dividing line between Mudumalai and Bandipur Sanctuary.
  • Tiger Reserve Announcement: The Tamil Nadu state government declared it a tiger reserve under the Wildlife Protection Act – 1972 in April 2007 due to the dwindling tiger population in the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve.
  • Vegetation: Long grass is found in the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, commonly known as Elephant Grass. Species of valuable trees like bamboo, teak, rosewood are also found here.
  • living organisms: The fauna found in this area are tiger, elephant, Indian gaur, panther, barking deer, Malabar giant squirrel and hyena etc.

National Means-cum-Merit Scholarship Scheme

National Means-cum-Merit Scholarship Scheme

The Union Human Resource Development Minister has informed that the National Means-cum-Merit Scholarship Scheme (NMMSS) has helped in reducing the drop-out rate in senior and senior secondary classes.


main point:

  • The scheme was implemented in May 2008 under the Ministry of Human Resource Development.
  • an objective: Its objective is to provide scholarships to the economically weaker sections of the dropout in eighth grade and encourage them to continue studies at secondary level.
  • Provisions related to scholarship: Under this scheme, one lakh new scholarships (Rs. 12000 per student per year) are provided to selected students of class nine studying in government schools, government aided and local body schools to continue their studies from class X to class XII. .
    • Under this scheme, the students are selected through an examination conducted by the governments of the States / Union Territories to provide scholarships.

Evaluation of the scheme:

  • Under this scheme, scholarships have been awarded to about 16.93 lakh students across the country so far.
  • The heads of all the institutes have stated that the NMMS scheme has reduced the drop-out rate in senior and senior secondary classes.

Lucknow Declaration

Lucknow Declaration

The Lucknow Declaration was adopted at the 1st India-Africa Defense Minister Conclave 2020 (1st India-Africa Defense Ministers Conclave- IADMC 2020) held in Lucknow, capital of Uttar Pradesh on 06 February 2020.


main point:

  • This conclave held in Lucknow Deforex-2020 (DefExpo-2020).
  • In this conclave, along with the traditional partners of East and South Africa, the West African states also demanded joint defense exercises including training for their officers and strengthening defense relations with India.
  • Leaders of both countries recognized the importance of peace and security for India and African countries under which 'Silence the Guns: Creating Conditions favorable for African Development' (Silence the Guns: Creating Conducive Conditions for African Development) The theme was included as the African Union's 'Theme of the Year'.
  • The leaders of the two countries welcomed the vision of the African Union for peace and security in Africa, which was India's 'sea' (Security and Development for All in the Region – Security and Growth for all in the Region).
  • On this occasion, the Defense Ministers of the two countries called for intensive cooperation in defense sector industries including investment, joint venture in defense equipment software, digital defense sector, R&D on mutually beneficial terms.
  • Indo-African Development Partnership: India has strengthened its Indo-African Development Partnership (India-Africa Development Partnership) has provided defense equipment, grants and line of credit to African countries.

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